Herkunft der recycelten Nichteisen-Metalle
Insgesamt werden in Österreich pro Jahr rund 20.600 Tonnen Nichteisen-Metalle aus Elektroaltgeräten zurückgewonnen. Dies entspricht z.B. einer Masse von rund 1,9 Millionen Alufelgen. Nebeneinandergelegt würden diese Alufelgen eine Strecke von Wien nach Frankfurt bedecken.
Aus den Elektroaltgeräten wird vor allem Aluminium und Kupfer zurückgewonnen, aber auch andere Nichteisen-Metalle wie Zink und Nickel und in geringen Mengen auch Edelmetalle wie Platin oder Gold. So enthält zum Beispiel eine Tonne Handyschrott mehr Gold als eine Tonne Golderz. Aus den gesammelten Batterien werden vor allem die Metalle Blei, Zink, Mangan, Cobalt und Nickel recycelt.
Die folgende Tabelle und Grafik gibt einen Überblick, in welchen Mengen und Anteilen die Nichteisen-Metalle aus den fünf Sammelkategorien für Elektroaltgeräte und den beiden Sammel- und Behandlungskategorien für Batterien recycelt werden können.
|Nichteisen-Metalle||Masse [t]||Anteil [%]|
Herkunft der rund 20.600 Tonnen recycelten Nichteisen-Metalle pro Jahr (Datenbasis 2017)
Im Zuge der Verwertung von Elektroaltgeräten werden die gesammelten Geräte dieser Kategorien zerkleinert, dies erfolgt in Großshreddern (siehe Elektrogroßgeräte) oder in einem Smasher oder Querstromzerspaner (siehe www.andritz.com/productsen/group/recycling/cross-flow-shredder-qz). Weitere Informationen zur Rückgewinnung von Nichteisen-Metallen aus Batterien finden Sie unter den Punkten Gerätebatterien und Fahrzeugbatterien.
Die Rückgewinnung der Nichteisen-Metalle aus Elektroaltgeräten (vor allem Aluminium und Kupfer) erfolgt über einen Nichteisen-Metall-Abscheider oder Wirbelstromabscheider. Das Prinzip des Wirbelstromabscheiders beruht auf dem Effekt, dass in einem Nichteisen- Metall in einem magnetischen Wechselfeld eine Spannung induziert wird. Diese Spannung erzeugt einen Wirbelstrom. Der Wirbelstrom erzeugt ein dem erzeugenden Magnetfeld entgegengesetztes Magnetfeld (Lenz‘sche Regel)
. Dadurch werden abstoßende Kräfte erzeugt, die das Nichteisen-Metall aus dem Förderstrom herausschleudern. Nähere Informationen sind auf den Homepages z.B. bei Firma Steinert, siehe steinertglobal.com/de/magnete-sensorsortierer/magnetseparation/wirbelstromscheider/ zu finden.
Zusätzlich werden teilweise Schwimm-/Sinkverfahren und sensorbasierte Sortiersysteme wie NIR- (Nahinfrarot), Induktions- oder Röntgensortiersysteme zur Abtrennung von Nichteisen-Metallen verwendet (z. B. Firma Steinert, siehe steinertglobal.com/de/magnete-sensorsortierer/sensorsortierung/).
Die Nichteisen-Metalle werden als wertvolle Sekundärrohstoffe wiederverwendet. In Österreich wird z.B. Kupfer in den Montanwerken Brixlegg (siehe www.montanwerke-brixlegg.com) und Aluminium bei der AMAG (siehe www.amag.at) in Ranshofen aus recycelten Materialien wiedergewonnen
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